Educational Building Solutions

— Educational Building Solution If the building space is modular, eco-friendly and augmentable over time, it’s best done with ABB Building Solutions. Energy distribution and automation suiting the spaces.

— Index

— SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE

— BUILDING SEGMENT OVERVIEW

• Building typology • Portfolio overview • Reference architecture • Building Applications details

• Segmentation • Building Performance

— DESIGNING INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL CENTERS • General References • Power Distribution • Guest Room Management System • Lighting and Shading Control • Emergency Lighting

— EDUCATIONAL SOLUTION

• Educational vertical profile • Customers needs

• Building segment performances for educational • Features expected from educational solution

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— Building Segment Overview

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— Building Segment Overview Segmentation

In a certain sense, the technology is transversal, but the solutions are effective when the technology is calibrated to the application. The best technical and economic compromise, the best design solutions are the result of experience, system choices and component choices. The careful and detailed analysis of the needs of the case of interest defines the user case.

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— Building Segment Overview Segmentation

— Residential

— Commercial

— Institutional

— Infrastructure

— Industrial

Single Family • Houses

Hospitality • Hotels, Resorts, Motels • Dormitories, Lodgings, Rooming • Cruiser ships Office • Low/Mid/High-rise • Multi-purpose • Laboratories • Call centres • Single/Time-share property Retail & Mall • Stores, Hypermarkets • Retail chains, Malls • Restaurants, Food chains • Showrooms Leisure Facilities • Casinos, Theme parks • Sport stadiums, gym-pools • Museum, Theatres

Healthcare • Hospitals • Nursing, Retirement homes • Elderly Care, Day Care • Multi-centres Educational • Schools, Universities, Colleges • Research facilities • Archives, Libraries Public • State/city buildings, Halls • Post-offices • Temples, Historic • Police, Military, Prisons

Transportation • Airports, Ports, Stations • Bus/Truck/Train terminals • Parking facilities • Tunnels

Manufacturing • Factory • Manufacturing • Transformation • Packaging

• Private dwellings • Single Apartments

Multiple Family • Multi family dwelling • Apartment’s complex

Storage • Warehouses • Cold storage plants

Others Industrial • Chemical, Pharmaceutical • Processing • Telecom

Others Infrastructure • Water/Sewage treatment

• Power Plants • Agricultural

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— Building Segment Overview Building performances

Currently, the strategic lines that guide the definition of the characteristics of a building are aimed at satisfying 4 classes of fundamental needs:

— Health & comfort

— Life cycle cost and value

— Environmental footprint

— Future proof assets

These classes of basic needs can be translated into 7 performances that measure the quality of the building itself. Transversal aspects common to all the required performances are scalability and modularity, more important the more rapidly the market demands change.

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— Building Segment Overview Building performances

— Connectivity

— Efficiency

— Total Cost of Ownership

— Sustainability

The building enables its intelligent components to connect providing proper cyber security, preventing software vulnerabilities

The building optimizes the energy consumption and supports the efficient use of resources.

The building gives the transparency of the operating and maintenance

The building runs with the best CO 2 footprint, according to GHG protocol sector 1.2.

costs. Warnings occur before a major fault.

and minimizing risks associated with data flow and storage.

— Flexibility

— Productivity

— Well-being

The building technology allows it to adapt easily to new usage requirements.

The building increases the productivity of employees, sets the right conditions (light, air quality, temperature …) adapting to the occupancy and expected performances.

The building technology keeps employees and visitors healthy.

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— Educational Solution

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— Educational Vertical Profile Introduction

An education center is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers.

Such institutions are normally accredited or sanctioned by the relevant national education authorities or equivalent authorities. Educational institutions may also be operated by private organizations, such as religious bodies, special interest groups or private educational and training enterprises, both for profit and non-profit. In these systems, students’ progress through a series of schools.

The names for these schools vary by country but generally include

• Kindergarten or preschool provide some schooling to very young children • Primary school for young children • Secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education • Universities • Research and special skills institutes

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— Educational Vertical Profile Points of interaction

Spaces in educational centers differs based on type, geography and purpose. Below are the most common spaces found in most of the institutional centers.

M16

M15

M14

Water Management

Electrical Room

Energy Storage

M17

M11

M12

M13

Renewable Plant

Central Energy Plant

Mechanical Plantroom

Data Center & Telecom Room

Services Spaces

M09

M09

M10

Command & Control Center

Administration Staff

Director Room

M08

Office Spaces

M07

M01

M02

Underground Car Park

Library

Library Spaces

M01

M03

Lobby & Common Area

Open Parking

Canteen

Classrooms

M01

Pick-up & Drop-ff

Classrooms

Parking Spaces

Science Facilities

Gymnasium

Auditorium

High Celling Spaces

Lab Spaces

Cafeteria Spaces

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— Educational Vertical Profile Educational trends post Covid

The COVID pandemic is setting a new normal, which is of primary importance within education buildings.

Under the guidance of WHO and local authority, all the institutes are coming up with processes to follow during opening and then operating education facilities. Though focus will remain on following general guidelines like social distancing, face covering, general hygiene, vaccine promotion etc. education sector will see some new trend emerging post COVID.

Though total cost of ownership and sustainability remain major consideration, based on research done by various leading organization, below are some the trend that will drive building technology industry.

Reduce covid contamination risk

Reducing covid contamination risk will be the highest priority for education authorities & facility managers and they will have to set up necessary digital and physical infrastructure to achieve this goal. Education facility managers will have to redefine operational protocols and automation sequences to comply local regulation such as increasing air ventilation and fresh air supply. In some cases, institutes might have to purchase additional infrastructure to sanitize the spaces and people better such as auto sanitizer dispenser, automatic cleaners, Ultraviolet light sources etc.

Indoor positioning solutions

While social gatherings all over the world are still restricted and it is recommended to practice social distancing to reduce the risk of contamination, following these protocols will be specially challenging in schools, and education authorities will have to search for an alternatives.

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— Educational Vertical Profile Educational trends post Covid

Improve indoor air quality

Net zero facilties

In recent years, while world was experiencing first pandemic of century, world also start realizing how important it is to better manage the build environment we live in. On and average, each person spend 80% of its lifetime in buildings and it can significantly impact the health of individuals. While Indoor air quality will play an important role in managing COVID risk, research done by various independent organization also suggest that, indoor air quality does affect students’ capability to learn and teachers’ capability to teach as well. Governments and education institutes are appreciating these research and start putting necessary infrastructure to monitor and manage indoor air quality of the facilities.

Evidence shows that our planet is overheating due to solar energy being trapped in the Earth's atmosphere due to excessive emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and steam. Global mean temperatures are now 1°C higher than in the pre-industrial era. To stabilize climate change, CO 2 emissions must go down to zero. Governments and the United Nations understand the urgency and start putting legal protocols in place to address this problem. At the same time, with educational institutions at the forefront of research and adoption of new technologies, most large institutions set themselves zero net goals. Net zero can be achieved in two ways: • Using technologies to reduce carbon emission by adopting new methods/processes or improving efficiency of existing processes/ methods. Such as, an electricity can be generated using renewable and nuclear generation, a transport system that runs on electricity or hydrogen, well-insulated homes and industrial processes based on electricity rather than gas etc. • Remove greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere, for example by capturing carbon created during industrial processes before it’s released or planting more trees.

Student and teacher well-being

The definition of well-being is the state of being comfortable, healthy, and happy but it has been usually confused with indoor air quality. Total well-being in much more than that and research done by various independent organization like Well building, RESET, Fitwel suggest that it depends on both physical as well as mental health of the occupant. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented many challenges to students, educators, and parents. Children already coping with mental health conditions have been especially vulnerable to the changes, and now we are learning about the broad impacts on students as a result of schools being closed, physically distancing guidelines and isolation, and other unexpected changes to their lives. Education institutes will start investing in monitoring and controlling total well-being parameters like thermal comfort, light level, sound level, adequate water supply, nutrition level display, seating arrangement etc. to improve physical as well as mental health of the students.

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— Educational Vertical Profile Educational trends post Covid

Facility remote monitoring and control

The rapid pace of technological advancement in the past few years has enabled facility manager to monitor and control facility from anywhere. Remote monitoring is the ability to visualize, track, and control assets and facilities without having to be on-premises. This capability is made possible through numerous technologies such as wireless networks, sensors, transmitters, receivers, data processing, cloud storage, and analytics. With recent COVID-19 pandemic, remote monitoring is appreciated by facility managers like never before. Now, with employee safety and wellbeing a top priority, smart sensors are providing a host of valuable information to monitor building performance and flag any unfolding issues to offsite teams. Some of the benefits facility manager will get like centralized monitoring, reduce downtime, lower operational cost, improved efficiency, proactive maintenance etc.

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— Educational Vertical Profile Customer needs

For education facilities, our research shows 12 key needs to be addressed, all of which are anchored in the 4 core need categories described in this section.

— Environmental footprint Sustainability goals

— Health and comfort Occupier experience

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all". The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Depending on individual goals, each educational institutes have come up with sustainability goals. Educational institutes are interested in working with organization which will help them to achieve their sustainability goals. Though each educational institutes will have different sustainability goals, net zero energy can be a common denominator for pretty much all of them.

The definition of well-being is the state of being comfortable, safe, healthy, and happy. Occupant well-being include both mental and physical health. Build environment around occupant plays vital role in delivering well-being. Well-being parameters include but not limited to air quality, sound level, light level, water, seating, access to nature and community.

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— Educational Vertical Profile Customer needs

— Life cycle cost and value

Downtime reduction

Predictive maintenance

Lower energy consumption

Downtime is a period during which a building equipment or machine is not functional or cannot work. It may be due to technical failure, machine adjustment, maintenance, or non- availability of inputs such as parts, materials, labor, power. common denominator for pretty much all of them.

Reactive maintenance allows equipment to fail before doing any maintenance activity, preventive maintenance is a scheduled activity to reduce failure by doing the maintenance at fixed interval and predictive maintenance collect and analyses system data to understand the performance and predict failure.

Even though the lockdown appears to be easing and world is trying to go back to normal, once buildings are fully occupied, building operations budget for facility managers will remain tight and they will have to look for all possible opportunities to reduce the operation cost.

Improve ROI

Operational Cost Reduction

Ease of certifications and compliance reporting Each facility is different and so is the local regulation to comply with. On top of this, each facility may have different certification goals to achieve business objectives. Facility manager must collect and submit necessary data in required format to comply with local regulation or meet certification requirements. This is a continuous process and must be completed before expiration date.

Return on investment (ROI) is a metric used to understand the profitability of an investment. ROI compares how much invested to buy or maintain in building technologies against to how saved or earned by using it.

Operation Cost (OpEX) also referred to as "Operating Expenses" are the day-to-day expenses incurred in running a facility and all its assets, that includes, Insurance, Utilities, general administrative expenses, Maintenance etc.

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— Educational Vertical Profile Customer needs

— Future proof assets

Integrated operation

Cyber security

When individual systems are not integrated, facilities staff has to learn how to operate each element separately, this can increase training time and associated cost. Also, identifying impact of one system on another can be difficult and time- consuming activity.

Cyber security is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks, and data from malicious attacks. More and more buildings are adopting a wide range of technologies to optimize systems such as physical security, energy management, and HVAC, lighting control and if precautionary measure are not taken, might just be creating additional security cyber security risk for the building operations.

Asset maintenance

Manage total cost of ownership

An asset life is a period for which building systems and equipment will be economically feasible to use in building. Maintenance, spare part and replacement cost must be considered for asset life assessment. Facility managers are looking for a means to increase overall life of a building equipment. Power quality and improper maintenance are major factors affecting the asset life and facility manager are looking for a solution to address these issues.

The total cost of ownership (TCO) is initial investment to buy land and build facility with necessary services plus the costs of operation. Total cost of ownership assessment must include expected life span of product, cost of product & spare parts and maintenance cost.

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— Building segment performance for educational centers

Before getting into the details of how technology can serve those needs, it is crucial to address them with the 7 Building Performances as identified within the ABB holistic approach. Based on their priorities, customers can effectively create their own strategy leveraging ABB building solution technologies, to serve their needs through selected Building Performances.

— Sustainability

— Total Cost of Ownership

— Efficiency

— Flexibility

— Connectivity

— Well-being

— Productivity

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— Building segment performance for educational centers

— Flexibility

— Sustainability

— Well-being

Seasonality, varying admission rates, event hosting, and lately sanitary regulations driven by the pandemic, are all contributing factors that force educational institutions to quickly adapt their buildings according to changing situations. Flexible buildings allow reconfiguration without major investments and reduce lead times.

Educational institutions often take leadership by setting forward ambitious sustainability goals, based on science and data. For higher education, that research also takes place on campus, which is a way to attract talent, and drive student admissions to related programs. Leading by example also means many universities will achieve challenging building performance certifications and seek global recognition. With a solution approach, such objectives can be clearly embedded in a holistic strategy supported by the relevant technology, whether it be onsite renewable generation or innovative energy storage.

It has been scientifically proven that the environment around us impacts our well-being on both physical and mental level. Even more so in a learning setting, comfort and concentration play a key role for students to be successful. Maintaining optimal values for parameters like thermal comfort, light level, sound level, and access to healthy spaces are a must for education.

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— Building segment performance for educational centers

— Total Cost of Ownership

— Efficiency

— Productivity

Decreasing budgets and fluctuating energy costs remain a key concern for educational institutions. The total cost of ownership (TCO) is the purchase price of a building plus the costs of operation. Increasing building value and reducing operational cost both contribute a lower TCO. For the education sector, owners do not necessarily focus on increasing building value, however identifying cost optimization opportunities will be at the forefront of the strategy.

Education buildings, both in the public and private sectors, often face shrinking operational budgets which drive them to save electricity, water and other utilities. On top of utility costs, the high cost of staff required to maintain equipment calls for predictive maintenance schemes based on continuous monitoring. These help identify issues before they appear, thus operators save money and lower the environmental impact.

Unhealthy and/or uncomfortable spaces are directly related to absenteeism and lack of productivity. In the higher education context, where students and staff work long hours in the facilities, the quality of the building plays a crucial role for the output of their work. This has significant implications on the results and reputation of institutions. It is a primary goal for best learning and research facilities to be recognized either nationally or internationally. Occupier well-being and productivity are closely linked to results.

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— Building segment performance for educational centers

— Connectivity

Given the large number of connected devices, and stringent IT requirements associated with education institutions, there is a need for a solid infrastructure. This allows intelligent components to operate using secure and reliable communications, protecting data, and preventing cyber- attacks. Complex building applications can be operated centrally at the campus level. In the era of cloud and big data, integrating multiple building systems gives unprecedented control to operators. Integration with other building systems using open industry standard protocols is not only best practice but often required in the sector.

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Automation, control and supervision

— Energy and economic saving

Automation systems can play a fundamental role in reducing energy consumption in the tertiary sector which has now become the most energy-intensive sector in the main industrialized countries.

The standard EN 15232 standard allows a simple and recognized estimation of energy and economic savings related to the adoption of an automation system that was previously quite delicate and complex.

Definition of classes Residential D C B

Non residential D C B

The automation classes according to the European standard EN 15232

A

A

EMISSION CONTROL Heating control The control system is installed at the emitter or room level, far case 1 one system can control several rooms 0 No automatic control 1 Central automatic control 2 Individual room automatic control by thermostatic valves or electronic controller 3 Individual room control with communication between controllers and to BACS 4 Integrated individual room control including demand control (by occupancy, air quality, etc.)

Control of distribution network hot water temperature (supply or return) Similar function can be applied to the control of direct electric heating networks 0 No automatic control 1 Outsider temperature compensated control 2 Indoor temperature control Control of distribution pumps The controlled pumps can be installed at different levels in the network 0 No control 1 On off control 2 Variable speed pump control with constant Dp 3 Variable speed pump control with proportional Dp

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Automation, control and supervision

— Energy and economic saving

The savings estimated according to the European standard EN 15232

BUILDING

BUILDING TYPE

f BAC.EL

f BAC.HC

D

C

B

A

D

C

B

A

Offices

1.10 1.06 1.07 1.05 1.07 1.04 1.08

0.93 0.94 0.93 0.98 0.95 0.96 0.95

0.87 0.89 0.86 0.96 0.90 0.92 0.91

1.51 1.24 1.20 1.31 1.31 1.23 1.56

0.80 0.75 0.88 0.91 0.85 0.77 0.73

0.70 0.5 a 0.80 0.86 0.68 0.68 0.6*

Lecture hall

School

Non residential

Hospital

Hotel

1

1

Restaurant

Wholesale and retail trade service buildings

Single family houses

Residential

Apartment block Other res. Building or similar

1.08

0.93

0.92

1.10

0.88

0.81

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Automation, control and supervision

— Communication

The communication between different sub-systems within the same building or the visualization via the internet of images of the rooms following an alarm, are functions easily achievable in a bus system.

The main points to be considered are:

• Simplicity of wiring Using bus technology wiring for the connection between the devices, all data and information travel on a simple twisted pair, thus saving on the material and time spent laying the cables. Using a 6-conductor cable, you can also bring power and speech to the various devices. The possibility of using a simple 6-conductor cable compared to the considerable bundle of cables (or the large multipolar cable) traditionally used, considerably facilitates installation, reducing installation times. • Modularity By turning to systems that use modular technology, it is possible to make the system evolve over time, starting from the basic functions and subsequently adding the other functions, without nullifying the investments already made. • Continuity of service and ease of maintenance By taking advantage of the internal self-diagnosis and anomaly recognition functions present in some systems, it is possible to immediately identify any faults. If necessary, the electronic modules can be replaced without having to interrupt the operation of the system, thus ensuring continuity of service. In addition, the electronic room control modules, if installed in the corridor, could be replaced without having to enter the patient’s room. In this way, no disturbance is caused to the patients and doctors and nurses can safely continue to operate according to their needs, while the technical maintenance staff can intervene promptly.

A bus system can satisfy communication needs related to security, control and entertainment such as the activation of video surveillance cameras or the sending via internet of images of the rooms following an alarm, it allows to understand if there is really the issue or if it is just a false alarm. All the functions implemented in the various systems of a building can also be controlled remotely through the use of web servers or remote controllers on land or mobile networks. The video system becomes an integral part of the automation system, allowing, among other functions, communication between the different workstations within the same structure. The different communication solutions between staff and between them and occupants allow for important results, including ease of use, savings in installation and management and improvement of the service offered.

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Automation, control and supervision

— Access control

MODULAR Modular architecture with stand alone graphics or that can be integrated into third party scada systems

SIMPLE CONFIGURATION Plug and play system. Just add the devices on the KNX line

SIMPLE MANAGEMENT Procedures for assigning access permissions simplified with various levels of user privilege

DIAGNOSTICS Integrated diagnostics for system alarms or faults

EXTENSION Simple and minimally invasive functionality extension

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Automation, control and supervision

— Security

The integration of systems such as the alarm system, video surveillance and technical alarms allows to reduce installation costs without affecting performance. The presence alarm system can communicate with the video surveillance, lighting and other systems of the structure: the integration of the different systems therefore allows for a higher level of security and lower costs than single stand-alone systems. Many devices can be used multi-functionally by several systems.

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Automation, control and supervision

— Comfort

— HVAC control - Comfort and efficiency in the same architecture

The increase in the comfort offered by the building and the quality of living are among the best known advantages of an automation control system. Lights and shutters of a room or a series of rooms can be grouped so that they can be controlled automatically or autonomously even by fragile people. This allows to conveniently turn off all the lights in an area with a single gesture, close the windows, put all the systems you want in standby condition (e.g. cooling), activate alarms, etc. By integrating the traditional functions of an electrical system with the control and automation functions of communication to and from the building, the usability of the structures is increased. Through thermoregulation, the system plays a fundamental role not only in minimizing consumption, but also in improving comfort. People with disabilities or with temporary or permanent mobility limitations can receive assistance in using the spaces and their functions. The solutions that in most cases meet these needs can be: • video surveillance cameras; • dedicated voice commands; • remote controls with specific features such as large illuminated buttons; • large parade buttons; • alarms reported on mobile phones in case of detection of flooding, gas leaks, open doors or windows, etc; • emergency call with dedicated or pull button.

HVAC SYSTEMS All HVAC is managed by the building management system

CENTRALIZED THERMAL EQUIPMENT All the equipment for heating and cooling (Boiler - Chiller-UTA - VRV Free cooling) can be integrated into the system and managed locally by PLC / Inverter

INTEROPERABILITY All the communication protocols can be integrated

DISTRIBUTED EQUIPMENT AND SENSORS All the equipment and sensors distributed in the rooms (fan coils, valves and thermostats) can be integrated and managed on the KNX protocol

FLEXIBILITY A flexible and modular architecture allowing to face all the possible cases

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Energy Management

— The tools for managing and controlling building energy consumption

— Building Energy Manager System expected features

Energy Managers, building owners, and Facility Managers are all too familiar with the pressure to reduce costs and energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort. Energy management includes planning and operation of energy production and energy consumption units as well as storage and energy distribution. Objectives are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings, while the users have permanent access to the energy they need. It is connected closely to environmental management, production management, logistics and other established business functions. In this sense, the choice of tool for managing and controlling building energy consumption and costs together with the BMS and the electrical power distribution scheme constitute the fundamental elements of the design of an electrical system, on which the analysis and development of the solution will depend. The ideal tool for managing and controlling building energy consumption and costs is user friendly, reporting and charting are so intuitive and easy to understand that it is not limited to use by expert energy managers. The solution shall be tailored to meet the individual requirements of each customer. The right solution focuses on energy management in order to analyze energy consumption and target savings in a building, enabling energy efficiency improvements and the continuous commissioning of the building.

Cloud-based BEMS access to the meter and sensor information in the building over the internet. The information is collected from the BAS via a secure fixed IP connection and the end-user accesses their information by logging into a dedicated website using their unique username and password. No limit to the number of meters and sensor points you can connect to the service across any geographical location is essential for large organizations but useful also for any other context. The possibility to works with any third-party systems such as Tridium, BACnet, and standalone systems via the SQL or MS Access database where the meter and sensor information is stored is crucial to avoid any limitation in existing building as well as in fully new installations.

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Energy Management

— Analysis and charting

— Increasing awareness & encouraging behavioural change A web-based public information display can communicate information on a building’s energy performance and provides tips and recommendations of how employees can assist in reducing energy consumption. By publically engaging people in energy efficiency behavioural change, there is the potential to improve energy efficiency by a further 5% over other energy efficiency measures in an organization. It also goes beyond the building bringing this positive behaviour into the wider public arena. • Improve building energy performance • Energy savings of up to 5% over other energy efficiency measures through behavioural change • Reduce cost and carbon footprint • Communicates energy policy & strategy to the public • According with ISO 50001

— Reporting

The BEMS analysis and charting shows how, where, and when energy consumptions are. Energy consumption data can be analyzed in a number of different ways from spectral analysis displays, regression analysis, actual versus target graphing, and lots more. Charting: • View real-time energy information in day, week, month, year and custom view • Compare time periods, meters and export data Analysis: • View energy patterns using the Spectral Analysis tool • Set targets based on driving factors or fixed parameters • Compare actual versus target • Access regression analysis, overspend and cumsum charts • Analyze energy consumption compared to a smart target for real-time energy management

Reports are an important tool for ongoing energy control by helping managers and key decision-makers keep track of energy-saving initiatives, verify if and where savings have been made, and when targets have been achieved. Fully customized reporting feature allows to generate instant or scheduled reports on energy consumption, costs, carbon emissions, performance versus targets, as well as tenant costs reports.

— Monitoring and alarms

Alarms viewed via the map based interface are particularly useful for a quick overview of multiple buildings in multiple locations for bureau or monitoring centres: • Anomalies detected in energy consumed versus expected consumption • Alarm reports issued via email • Analysis of historical alarms can help identify potential ongoing issues.

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— Features expected from educational centers solution Service continuity

— General distribution schemes

There are no real specific technical standard references for the choice of the electricity distribution scheme, also in consideration of the fact that this choice is necessarily free and dependent on the process served. Electricity distribution systems are a fundamental infrastructure for most business processes and help to determine their performance in terms, for example, of energy management, safety, reliability and maintainability. If plant safety is an essential property as a legal requirement, reliability, availability and maintainability are instead characteristics of the plant that directly impact the business. The possible configurations that an electrical distribution system can assume can generally be traced back to three fundamental schemes:

Characteristic

Scheme simple radial

double radial

ring

Reliability

min min min max min min

max max max

avg

Service continuity

avg 1 avg 2 avg 2

Voltage stability

Losses

min

Initial cost

max max max

avg avg avg avg

Service and maintenance cost

Flexibility

min

Management

max

avg

• the simple radial scheme; • the double radial scheme; • the ring.

1 If short interruptions of service are acceptable in case of breakdowns or work on the system. 2 It is a function of the point where the ring is kept open.

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— Testimonials from ABB technology users

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— Testimonials from ABB technology users

— Centralised control of 15,500 points across 300,000 m 2

EUROPE

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN | UCD

Projekt Overview The treated floor area of approximately 300,000 m² is managed centrally by the Unitron Building Management System. An intensive period of construction in recent years resulted in an unprecedented increase in campus running costs. As a government funded body there is ongoing pressure to cut energy spending and this led to the establishment of the UCD Energy Unit. Its mandate is to improve energy efficiency, reduce overall energy costs, and improve unit cost estimates while promoting an environmentally friendly policy. “The ABB Cylon® solution provides centralized control across the whole campus which means we have very effective management of our buildings right from the desktop” Brendan Robinson, UCD Energy Unit

Solutions Benefits In the early stages many of the big wins for Energy Efficiency were in use of occupancy sensors linked directly to the BMS. In some buildings the Energy Unit managed to reduce energy consumption by up to 30% in this way. Timing schedules can also be changed remotely for any buildings which is very convenient. As a fully integrated BMS the ABB Cylon® solution is also used to capture occupancy information for utilisation reporting. The staff of the Energy Unit can respond very effectively to queries from building users. Manageability is a key benefit as all information feeds are included in the Unitron Command Centre. The power of the system has dramatically improved troubleshooting capabilities before an inspection of plant is required. To achieve its mandate the Energy Unit has been even more creative in driving further energy savings. Daylight linking of lighting is an important project that has significantly reduced the “hours run” of

University College Dublin (UCD) is the largest third level college in Ireland. The main centre at Belfield consists of over 50 buildings on a 132 hectare site and there are additional buildings at a number of outlying locations.

lighting and reduced the amount of power consumed. The increased

automation of the open/close procedure of the building also saves time for building custodians.

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— Testimonials from ABB technology users

— An ABB Cylon® Smart Energy Solutionto Reduce Carbon Imprint

UNITED STATES

UC IRVINE ANTEATER LEARNING PAVILION

Projekt Overview Led by Chancellor Howard Gillman, UCI has more than 30,000 students and offers 192 baccalaureate degree programs. It’s located in one of the world’s safest and most economically vibrant communities and is Orange County’s second-largest employer, contributing $5 billion annually to the local economy. As a signatory of the American College and University Presidents’ Climate Commitment, UCI is dedicated to saving energy and reducing their carbon foot print. The Anteater Learning Pavilion is a 65,000 square foot facility completed in September 2018. This is the first “active learning” building in California and the only the second campus building wholly devoted to active learning in United States. The Anteater Learning Pavilion features 15 smart classrooms, auditoriums and two lecture halls which seat 400 and 250 persons. The Challenge The Anteater Learning Pavilion build is part of a construction boom addressing the growth of student and faculty populations and research endeavours projected in UCI’s 10-year strategic plan. The building includes an elliptical, two-story facility containing two active-learning lecture halls, one with 250 seats stacked above another with 400

seats. The University committed to build all new buildings to a minimum of a LEED® Silver rating and established the goal of beating California’s Energy Code, Title 24, by 50%. UCI was also among the first to commit to the government’s Better Building Challenge. By committing to the challenge, the University pledged to become 20% more efficient by the year 2020. The Solution The HVAC system design consists of four new custom air handling units, and fan coils serving lecture halls, classrooms, offices and circulation spaces. The custom air handling units are equipped with variable speed supply and return fans, and the fan coils are hot water and hydronic chilled. In two of the lecture halls, two air handling units serve variable flow and temperature displacement ventilation systems. Heating hot water is produced in the heat exchanger utilizing high temperature water supplied by the campus central plant. The hot water is then distributed to reheat coils via two variable speed hot water pumps. The project also included test, adjust, and balance scope sound level measurements in the lecture halls and classrooms.

Founded in 1965, University of California Irvine (UCI) is the youngest member of the prestigious Association of American Universities. The campus has produced three Nobel laureates and is known for its academic achievement, premier research, innovation and anteater mascot.

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— Testimonials from ABB technology users

— A Smart Building Solution for Increased Energy Efficiency

UNITED STATES

LAKE ORION COMMUNITY SCHOOLS

Project Overview On this land sits seven elementary schools, three middle schools, a high school, a community and childhood education building, an administrative building, and a transportation building. Together, these locations combine for approximately 1.6 million square feet of building space. The Challenge The school district prides itself on leveraging stateof- the-art technology throughout their facilities and were looking to upgrade their existing building control system to coincide with their technological philosophy. Executive Director Wes Goodman had previous experience with Building Automated Systems and Services (B.A.S.S.), as well as ABB Cylon®, and once again turned to them for a cutting-edge Building Automation System for their school. The Solution Taking advantage of everyday technology like RRS Feeds, iCalendar integration for scheduling zones, and status notifications through Twitter® among others, ASPECTFT provided a powerful and easy to use building automation & energy control front-end solution. The transition from existing equipment to the ASPECTFT system has been a gradual migration. Currently, an

ASPECTFT-Enterprise communicates over the Ethernet infrastructure of the district to five schools, each containing an ASPECTFT- MATRIX and a variety of ABB Cylon® BACnet® unitary controllers. In two of these schools, ABB Cylon® controls were installed to replace pneumatic controls on large multi- zone units, with the systems in these buildings being expanded to solve control and mechanical problems. In the other three, all remaining pneumatic controls have been eliminated and replaced by a DDC system that is integrated via BACnet I/P to the ASPECTFT-Enterprise system. This entire system is operated through a desktop workstation by Andy Fountain, the Manager of Facilities and Energy, and will soon become portable once the system is upgraded to the latest version of ASPECTFT with HTML5 capabilities; allowing the system to be easily accessed from tablets and smart phones.

Lake Orion Community Schools (LOCS), in Lake Orion, Michigan, encompasses 50 square miles and 380 acres of school property.

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— Solution architecture

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— Building typology Educational centers enviroment

The whole educational centers building can contain or not different areas devoted to specific functions.

Administration

Classroom spaces

Director room

Libraries

Chilled water system Hot water system Central energy plant

Science facilties

Command and control center

Lobby and common areas

Pick-up and drop-off points

Audiotorium

Gymnasium

Cafeteria

Open parking

Underground car park

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— Building typology Educational centers enviroment

— Lobby and common areas

— Gymnasium

The lobby space type includes foyers, entries to halls, and security screening areas at or near the entrance to a building or demarcated space, and are meant to welcome and direct students, teachers and visitors, control access, and provide exit ways from buildings. This space type is often designed with both secure and non-secure areas.

Gymnasium is a building containing space and equipment for various indoor sports activities, exercise and physical education and usually including spectator accommodations, locker and shower rooms, offices, classrooms, and in some cases, it might have a swimming pool as well. Gymnasium design must provide spaces for collaboration while providing good accessibility, operational efficiency, safety and security

Large or small, the lobby in your school should be comfortable and accommodating for students, parents, guests, and school staff.

Similarly, a school or university “commons” is a space that can be utilized by the entire campus, typically by varying sizes of groups and with multiple functions. Lobby and common area design must provide spaces for collaboration while providing good accessibility, operational efficiency, safety and security.

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— Building typology Educational centers enviroment - High Ceiling Spaces

— Audiotorium

Auditorium is a room built in a education building where an students, teachers, parents and visitors sits, as distinct from the stage, the area on which the opening exercises, announcement, performance or other object of the audience’s attention is presented. A sloping floor allows the seats to be arranged to give a clear view of the stage. The walls and ceiling usually contain concealed light and sound equipment and air extracts or inlets and may be highly decorated. Lighting control is one the most important factor get considered while designing auditorium.

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— Building typology Educational centers enviroment

— Classroom spaces

— Science facilties

A classroom or schoolroom is a learning space in which both children and adults learn. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, ranging from preschools to universities, and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom provides a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions. While in campus, students spend most of their time in classrooms and hence it plays very important role overall learning. Classroom environment has an impact on academic outcomes of students but traditionally, classroom environment was focused only on physical look and feel of the environment. Recent studies have suggested that environment parameters like thermal comfort, outdoor light, light intensity, indoor air quality, noise etc. affect student’s ability of focus and hence learn. Post COVID, ensuring indoor air quality and reducing the risk on infection due to pathogen is one of the key focus area of school and university administration as well as governments.

A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of settings: physicians' offices, clinics, hospitals, and regional and national referral centers A laboratory school or demonstration school is an elementary or secondary school operated in association with a university, college, or other teacher education institution and used for the training of future teachers, educational experimentation, educational research, and professional development. Many laboratory schools still operate in the United States and around the globe. They are known by many names: laboratory schools, demonstration schools, campus schools, model schools, university-affiliated schools, child development schools, etc., and most have a connection to a college or university. Each university-affiliated school has a unique relationship with a college or university and a different grade configuration. Some lab schools are only for preschool or kindergarten children, some are preschool through fifth or sixth grade, and some continue through high school.

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